Комаровская А.С. Методическая разработка занятия эвристического типа «Философия и методология науки»
Опубликовано 25 марта 2022 в 12:00

Эвристическое занятие креативного типа по дисциплине «Философия и методология науки»

Heuristic lesson of a creative type in the academic discipline «Philosophy and methodology of science»

 

 

Комаровская Анастасия Сергеевна, доцент кафедры философии и методологии науки факультета философии и социальных наук Белорусского государственного университета, Anastasha@tut.by

 

Komarouskaya Anastasiya, Associate Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Methodology of Science, Faculty of Philosophy and Social Sciences, Belarusian State University, Anastasha@tut.by

 

Аннотация. Представленная методическая разработка эвристического занятия креативного типа является демонстрационным вариантом материала, реализуемого в процессе преподавания дисциплины «Философия и методология науки» для аспирантов и магистрантов БГУ, осваивающих обучение на английском языке. Эвристическое занятие разработано с целью получения самостоятельного образовательного продукта по теме «Наука в системе социальных ценностей». Структура эвристического занятия включает 7 базовых элементов: 1) целеполагание; 2) определение и формулирование проблемы (социального запроса) занятия; 3) изучение материалов по теме занятия, представленных на образовательном портале eduffsn.bsu.by: текст лекционного материала (hand-out); 1-ый круг реальных объектов действительности, предлагаемых обучающимся для изучения (универсальный концепт этоса науки Роберта Мертона); 2-ой круг реальных объектов действительности, предлагаемых обучающимся для изучения (вариант универсального этического кодекса учёных; три блока визуализации); 4) создание собственного образовательного продукта: эвристическое задание – 1 / составление карты-рисков для современного общества в ситуации игнорирования (роли) этического контроля научной деятельности; эвристическое задание – 2 / составление презентации, отображающей авторский взгляд на проблему соотношения науки и этики в современном обществе; 5) демонстрация и групповое обсуждение образовательных продуктов; 6) рефлексия; 7) подведение итогов занятия. Все обучающиеся, проходившие эвристическое занятие, успешно справились с задачами, поставленными преподавателем, полностью реализовали цель занятия. Аспиранты и магистранты отметили положительный эффект занятия креативного типа, значительно повышающего личностную вовлеченность обучающихся в образовательный процесс. 

 

Academic discipline: «Philosophy and methodology of science»

 

Number of hours for the implementation of methodological development: 2 hours for lecture, 6 hours of practice

 

The lesson is carried out on the educational portal of the Faculty of Philosophy and Social Sciences of the Belarusian State University (LMS Moodle) :

https://eduffsn.bsu.by/course/view.php?id=1298#section-13

 

Topic of the lesson: Science in the system of social values

 

The main tasks of the lesson is in a relation to the individual self-realization of the graduate students in the process of studying the topic:

  • Promote the self-realization of each graduate student by analyzing real life situations and correlating them with subject matter content;
  • To enable graduate students to independently identify and analyze the role of science in the system of social values;
  • Provide conditions for creating an individual educational product on the subject of classes;
  • Implement the possibility of the development of communicative competencies, creative self-examination of graduate students and teamwork skills by discussing individual educational products.

 

The central problem of discussion in the class is: the role and functions of science in society, science and social values, social responsibility of the scientist, the importance of constant actualization of the requirements of society and science opportunities, ethics of science

 

The range of real objects offered by graduate students to explore: the theory of normal science and concept of ethos of the science of R. Merton, the layout of the Code of Professional Ethics of the Scientists and the block of vizualization.

 

Methods for studying the actual object of reality:

Traditional methods: method of systematization and analysis of theoretical data, data visualization method (work with the images);

Heuristic methods: method of forming research objectives, method of deployed comparison, reflection method, method of probabilistic prediction, the method of self-organization of studying.

 

Steps of lesson:

 

1. Goaling

 

The lecturer introduces graduate students with the subject of classes and offers to perform the task on the educational portal.

The task is: choose three most significant for yourself goals of the class from the list of goals. It is also possible to formulate its own goal in the point "Other". Graduate students need to justify their choice.

 

List of goals:

  • Get new knowledge in the field of Philosophy and methodology of science, which reveal the actual role of science in the modern society.
  • Learn how to consciously relate to theoretical information and practice of its application in real social conditions.
  • Learn the main ideas about the ethical norms of scientific activity, formulated within the framework of modern concepts of Philosophy and methodology of science.
  • Test knowledge in the field of Philosophy and methodology of science.
  • Supplement with new elements the system of your knowledge and skills in the field of Philosophy and methodology of science.
  • Learn new methods and specifics of the knowledge of the block of socio-humanitarian disciplines.
  • Develop or improve communicative competence during a discussion with a lector and classmates.
  • Improve teamwork skills.

 2. Formulation of the problem

 

Lecturer during the lecture illuminates the main problem of direction of ethics and science in the field of modern Philosophy and methodology of science. Provides basic conceptual options for the ratio of science and ethics. At the end of the lecture the lecturer actualizes the question: whether science is possible today without ethics, scientific activities outside of ethical control?

 

Further, graduate students are invited to do heuristic task on the educational portal.

 3. Accommodation on the educational portal of visualized information: lecture text, the range of real object, images

 4. The execution of the heuristic task in the form of compilation 1) of the map of risks for modern society in case of ignoring the ethical control of scientific activities; 2) of the presentations on the subject lecture problem.

 

 5.1. Demonstration of educational products on the educational portal

 

Students post individual educational products in the form of attached presentations and files on the educational portal.

 

 5.2. Discussion of educational products on the educational portal

 Graduate students analyze each other's educational products, ask to each other clarifying questions.

 

 

 6. Reflection

 Lecturer suggests return to the point of goaling and analyze how the primary choice has changed and why.

 

 7. Conclusion

 

  • List your achievements of studying the lecture topic.
  • List the difficulties with which you encountered during you studying the topic?
  • How did you overcome these difficulties?
  • What is for you personally the main result of studying the topic?
  • Describe your emotional impressions at different steps of classes.
  • Describe your impressions of work in the process of team discussion.
  • Was the heuristic lesson useful for you?

 

Forms of control and evaluation of the results of classes

 

The criteria for estimating individual tasks are the following positions:

  • The ability to clearly and reasonably explain its position in the process of performing all elements of the heuristic lesson (2 points).
  • Originality and creativity of an individual educational product (2 points).
  • Activity, correctness and compliance with ethical standards in team discussion of educational products (2 points).
  • The ability to analyze the works of classmates, to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the works of classmates and their own work (2 points).
  • Semantic and value depth of reflection (2 points).

 

Conclusions and recommendations of methodological development

 

The practical effectiveness of the heuristic lesson is confirmed by the following aspects:

  • High activity and interest of the audience in conducting classes.
  • Positive graduate student’s reviews.
  • Creative, interesting educational products.
  • Development of critical thinking.
  • Development and consolidation of efficient teamwork skills.

 

Note that all graduate students coped with the task. The organization and conduct of heuristic classes have shown that classes of this type increase the motivation of students to study the subject of the Philosophy and methodology of science; allow developing critical and heuristic thinking; psychologically and emotionally prepare students to solve complex, non-standard tasks in the future sphere of ​​professional employment. In the format of heuristic lessons it is possible to create an opportunity for presentation of complex problems of modern social reality, the immersion of graduate students into the real context of problems of modern science, providing the possibility of independent analytical work with a complex conceptual material of modern Philosophy and methodology of science and finding possible solutions of complex issues of the modern world.

 

The identified practical effectiveness of the presented methodological development makes it possible to recommend it for use in the classes in various topics on the discipline Philosophy and methodology of science for student audiences studying both in Russian and English.

 

The undoubted positive aspect of this methodological development is the possibility of its holistic application on the educational portal.

 

 

 Author Komarovskaya А.S.

Текст на английском языке представлен в авторской редакции.